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Krady, J Kyle and Lin, Hsiao Wen and Liberto, Christina M and Basu, Anirban and Kremlev, Sergey G and Levison, Steven W (2008) Ciliary neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 differentially activate microglia. Journal Neruosci Res, 86 (7). pp. 1538-1547.

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Studies have shown that cytokines released following CNS injury can affect the supportive or cytotoxic functions of microglia. Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-family cytokines are among the injury factors released. To understand how microglia respond to IL-6 family cytokines, we examined the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and IL-6 on primary cultures of rat microglia. To assess the functional state of the cells, we assayed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) following stimulation. We show that CNTF reduces COX-2 levels, whereas IL-6 increases the expression of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and Cox-2. We also examined trophic factor expression and found that CNTF enhances glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA and protein secretion, whereas IL-6 has no effect. Correspondingly, conditioned media from CNTF-stimulated microglia promote motor neuron survival threefold beyond controls, whereas IL-6-stimulated microglia decrease neuronal survival twofold. To understand better the signaling mechanisms responsible for the opposite responses of these IL-6-family cytokines, we examined STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation in CNTF- and IL-6-stimulated microglia. IL-6 markedly increases STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation after 20 min of treatment, whereas these signal transducers are weakly stimulated by CNTF across a range of doses. We conclude that CNTF modifies microglial activation to support neuronal survival and that IL-6 enhances their capacity to do harm, as a result of different modes of intracellular signaling.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Neurodegenerative Disorders
Neuro-Oncological Disorders
Neurocognitive Processes
Neuronal Development and Regeneration
Informatics and Imaging
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Depositing User: Dr. D.D. Lal
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2020 06:04
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2021 09:18
URI: http://nbrc.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/588

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