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Priyanka, . and Wadhwa, R and Chaudhuri, R and Nag, TC and Seth, Pankaj (2020) Novel role of mortalin in attenuating HIV-1 Tat-mediated astrogliosis. J Neuroinflammation, 17 (1). p. 276. ISSN 1742-2094

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Background: In human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, activation of astrocytes induces imbalance in physiological functions due to perturbed astrocytic functions that unleashes toxicity on neurons. This leads to inflammatory response finally culminating into neurocognitive dysfunction. In neuroAIDS, HIV-1 protein, transactivator of transcription (Tat) is detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients. Mortalin, a multifunctional protein, has anti-inflammatory role following its activation in various stress conditions. Recent studies demonstrate downregulation of mortalin in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we explored the mechanisms of mortalin in modulating HIV-1 Tat-mediated neuroinflammation. Methods: Expression of mortalin in autopsy section in normal and diseased individuals were examined using immunohistochemistry. To decipher the role of mortalin in HIV-1 Tat-induced activation, human fetal brain-derived astrocytes were transiently transfected with Tat and mortalin using expression vectors. HIV-1 Tat-mediated damage was analyzed using RT-PCR and western blotting. Modulatory role of mortalin was examined by coexpressing it with Tat, followed by examination of mitochondrial morphodynamics using biochemical assay and confocal and electron microscopy. Extracellular ATP release was monitored using luciferase assay. Neuroinflammation in astrocytes was examined using flow cytometry, dye based study, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, and western blotting. Indirect neuronal damage was also analyzed. Results: HIV-1 Tat downregulates the expression of mortalin in astrocytes, and this is corroborated with autopsy sections of HIV-1 patients. We found that overexpression of mortalin with Tat reduced inflammation and also rescued astrocytic-mediated neuronal death. Using bioinformatics, we discovered that binding of mortalin with Tat leads to Tat degradation and rescues the cell from neuroinflammation. Blocking of proteosomal pathway rescued the Tat degradation and revealed the ubiquitination of Tat. Conclusion: Overall, our data demonstrated the protective role of mortalin in combating HIV-1 Tat-mediated damage. We also showed that mortalin could degrade Tat through direct binding with HIV-1 Tat. Overexpression of mortalin in the presence of Tat could significantly reduce cytotoxic effects of Tat in astrocytes. Indirect neuronal death was also found to be rescued. Our in vitro findings were validated as we found attenuated expression of mortalin in the autopsy sections of HIV-1 patients.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Neurodegenerative Disorders
Neuro-Oncological Disorders
Neurocognitive Processes
Neuronal Development and Regeneration
Informatics and Imaging
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Depositing User: Dr. D.D. Lal
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2019 09:34
Last Modified: 25 Nov 2021 04:17
URI: http://nbrc.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/504

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